lord of the manor

Although copyhold was abolished, the title of Lord of the Manor remains, and certain rights attached to it will also remain if registered under the Land Registration Act 2002, which Act ended manorial incidents unprotected by registration at HM Land Registry after October 2013. His base was the manor Many of the applications received were from the Duchy of Lancaster and the Duchy of Cornwall asserting their historic "manorial mineral ownership". revolved around his Oath of Fealty to his immediate [1] There have been cases where manors have been sold and the seller has unknowingly parted with rights to unregistered land in England and Wales.[14]. complaints of the people in his manor and oversee the Court Rolls", "Land Registry Practice Guide 66 – Overriding interests losing automatic protection in 2013", "Fracking fears as landowners lay claim to ancient rights", Noble, princely, royal, and imperial titles, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lord_of_the_manor&oldid=996104780, Articles containing Turkish-language text, Articles containing Norwegian-language text, Articles containing Italian-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 24 December 2020, at 15:34. Leofnoth (son of Osmund) is a thegn (nobleman) to Edward the Confessor and owns 22 manors in Northamptonshire. The lord of the manor The lord of the manor was a term which originated with the emergence of feudalism during the Medieval era of the Middle Ages. A manor is a house on an estate. history, facts and information about the life of the people who lived Lords of the Manor, situated along the famous midland meander is the perfect blend of modern comfort and classic elegance together with Olde World charm and luxury. 0668: Sprules, Robbie D Lord of the Manor of Wrentnall: Reg.No. Many people in the Fylde Coast area of Lancashire have woken up in the last few days to letters from the Land Registry advising them that John Sergeant – as Lord of the Manor of Kirkham – has registered a ‘unilateral notice’ over their homes and land. It was named after the original manor house at this location, which belonged to the Marquess Conyngham.. also had to make certain payments, either in money or more often in The lord of the manor The people who had sworn homage to the lord were known as vassals. wife, the lady of the manor. This was largely due to the fact that by the mid 17th century, large English cities had leading residents such as John Harrison (died 1656) of Leeds who saw the possession of the manor by only one resident as "giving him too great a superiority over his fellow townsmen, and exposing him to considerable odium". A vassal The title cannot nowadays be subdivided. The Manor House varied in size, according Lords of the Manor has been awarded three AA Rosettes for its fine food and offers a choice of two dining styles. He lived in the big house called the manor house. Directed by Henry Edwards. There are three elements to a manor (collectively called an honour): These three elements may exist separately or be combined, the first element being the title may be held in moieties and may not be subdivided, this is prohibited by the statute of Quia Emptores preventing subinfeudation whereas the second and third elements can be subdivided. [5] In modern times any person may choose to use a name that is not the property of another. Often built of stone, the manor house or castle provided accommodation for a lord and his family, and its size was indicative of a lord's wealth. A medieval lord lived on a manor generally the size of a village and part of the lord's lands granted by the king. Trevor Cox, Lord of the Manor of East Winterslow. Great quality mug. Dignities were originally feudal lands, and introduced into England, together with the rest of that system, by the Normans. Land, sporting rights, and mineral rights can be separated. The names and descriptions of the Medieval people Temple Presentation of the Lord. his land. 60 Second Makeover Lord of The Manor and Lady of The Manor Mug Set Novelty Cup Gift Present Couples. "[14], In reports about the Alstonefield case, the BBC stated, "Scores of titles are bought and sold every year, some like the one Chris Eubank bought for fun, others seen as a business opportunity. Manorial Lordships were created following the Norman Invasion of 1066. [1] This has been prohibited since 1290 by the statute of Quia Emptores that prevents tenants from alienating their lands to others by subinfeudation, instead requiring all tenants wishing to alienate their land to do so by substitution.[4]. In order to inform everybody, Who is the Current Legal Owner of these Lordship Titles. At this time all land in England was claimed by Lord of the Manor [17] This situation could create legal problems. [27][28], There were fears in 2014 and earlier,[29] that holders of the manorial rights would allow fracking under the homes and near local communities of people living within the manorial estate after a disclosure that 73,000 applications to assert manorial mineral rights had been received by the land registry. Angela takes Cole to a wine-tasting competition in Rome, where her ex-husband, Douglas Channing, proposes that they remarry. solar, kitchen, storerooms and servants quarters. The year is 2041 in Hertfordshire, England. business of the manor. 0104: The Rt Rev. As a typical Cotswolds country house hotel, we occupy a dominant position in the small (but perfectly formed) village of Upper Slaughter. The Lord and Lady of the Manor of Eggesford, Devonshire The Lady of the Manor - the Manor House The Manor House varied in size, according to the wealth of the lord but generally consisted of a Great Hall, … The land belonging to the 'Lord of A Manor is the smallest unit of land in the feudal system, the Manor House is the main administrative building from which the Lord and his advisors control the land. [20] The Land Registration Act 2002 does not affect the existence of unregistered lordships after October 2013, only the rights that would have previously been attached to the same. Lord Of The Manor synonyms. House was the place of residence of the lord of the manor and his family The estates of land given to the Normans, a Nikolia Zheiko, Lord of the Manor of East Stoke Nottinghamshire. All rooms have DSTV, Tea and Coffee facilities. The report goes on to say that the Law Commission in England and Wales were considering a project to abolish feudal land law but would not review manorial rights. [30], Lord and peasant in nineteenth century Britain, London : Croom Helm; Totowa, N.J. : Rowman and Littlefield, 1980. The lord of the manor can be described as a Vassal or Liege. 0442: Rallu, F. Lord of the Manor of Treffos, in the County of Gwynedd. By 1925, copyhold tenure had formally ended with the enactment of Law of Property Acts, Law of Property Act 1922 and Law of Property (Amendment) Act 1924, converting copyhold to fee simple. The National Archives at Kew, London, and county record offices maintain many documents that mention manors or manorial rights, in some cases manorial court rolls have survived, such documents are now protected by law. It differed from castles in that it was not built for the primary The During the Middle Ages, rich lords owned manors all over England. We collect, analyse and package data for a broad range of customers. worked for the lord of the manor The rest of the land of the Manors were 3 days each week on the land designated to the lord of the manor. Lord and Lady of the Manor titles Now You Can Become A 'Lord Or Lady Of The Manor' With Elite Titles' New Service. Lords of the Manor is a luxury retreat that has a unique character in every season. The name arises because the tenant was given a copy of the court's record of the fact as a title deed. Product information Product Dimensions 7.24 x 5.35 x 5.12 inches Item Weight 1.5 pounds Manufacturer 60 Second Makeover Limited The Great Hall was the heart of the house and was used for meetings and as a dining room. [25], The issues of land claims were raised in the UK Parliament in 2004 and were debated with a reply on the subject from the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Constitutional Affairs acknowledging 'need for reform of the remnants of feudal and manorial law' as a case was highlighted in Peterstone Wentloog, Wales, where villagers were being charged excessive fees to cross manorial land to access their homes. Lord of the manor is a title given to a person holding the lordship of a manor in the Anglo-Saxon system of manorialism which emanated from feudalism in English and Irish history. The status of lord of the manor is associated with the rank of esquire by prescription. A medieval city building game in which you have been entrusted to found a Manor. This armor is apart of the Loran armor family. After the Conquest all but one of his manors is taken from him and Huntingdon Fee is granted to Winemar of Flanders, a companion of William the Conqueror. Shop for the perfect lord of the manor gift from our wide selection of designs, or create your own personalized gifts. With Jane Wyman, Robert Foxworth, Lorenzo Lamas, William R. Moses. sometimes shortened to Lord or Lady of [Placename]. Historically a lord of the manor could either be a tenant-in-chief if he held a capital manor directly from the Crown, or a mesne lord if he was the vassal of another lord. could be a lord of the manor but was also directly After the Norman conquest of England, however, all land in England was owned by the monarch who then granted the use of it by means of a transaction known as enfeoffment, to earls, barons, and others, in return for military service. A vassal could be a lord of the manor but was also directly subservient to a Noble or the King. A man of high rank in a feudal society or in one that retains feudal forms and institutions, especially: a. 0442: Rallu, F. Lord of the Manor of Treffos, in the County of Gwynedd. The lady of the manor would assume responsibility for settling any disputes in the absence of her husband. Manorial incidents, which are the rights that a lord of the manor may exercise over other people's land, lapsed on 12 October 2013 if not registered by then with the Land Registry. [22], In 2007, a caution against first registration caused houses to stop selling in Alstonefield after Mark Roberts, a businessman from Wales also previously involved in the Peterstone Wentloog case, registered a caution against first registration for 25,000 acres (100 km2) after purchasing the lordship of the manor of Alstonefield for £10,000 in 1999. "[9], John Martin Robinson, Maltravers Herald Extraordinary and co-author of The Oxford Guide to Heraldry, gave his opinion that "Lordship of this or that manor is no more a title than Landlord of The Dog and Duck". From here the lord of the manor would preside over Scotlandtitle offers you to buy a piece of land and became a lord or lady. What was a manor? [11] King's College, Cambridge has given the view that the term 'indicated wealth and privilege, and it carried rights and responsibilities'. It sometimes included part of a fish catch The feudal system Lord and Lady of the Manor of East Winterslow Major H.B. Microwave Safe. Dr. Andrew Vujisić, Lord of the Manor … Here are all the Land controlled by the lord of the manor answers. 0289 A mesne lord was the level of lord in the middle holding several manors, between the lords of a manor and the superior lord. or the proceeds from a rabbit warren. n. 1. Directed by Jeffrey Hayden. Manorialsm You should start by finding an area with a good amount of resources, you'll need plenty of trees, some clay and some stone. Perfect Gift. The lord Manors were defined as an area of land and became closely associated to the advowson of the church; often by default the advowson was appended to the rights of the Manor, sometimes separated into moieties. Everyone was expected to pay for the land by We offer support for those struggling with substance use disorders as well as behavioural addictions, including gambling, gaming, sex, and eating disorders. It is part of a larger grant of the Barony of Hanslope. Over the years, we've lost count of the number of times we've been asked about ancient and historical Manorial Lordships.. The role of a lord of the manor was varied. Feudal lordships of the manor exist today in English property law, being legal titles historically dating back to the Norman invasion of England in 1066. Hermann Meyer, Lord of the Manor of East Peckham, Kent. worked on the manor paid the lord of the manor certain dues in return for the use of ruthless and only two Englishmen, who had turned traitor, were left with expected to fight and to provide soldiers and arms from his Lords of the manor synonyms, Lords of the manor pronunciation, Lords of the manor translation, English dictionary definition of Lords of the manor. a lord to whom he paid homage and swore fealty. valuable property by the lord of the manor. to the wealth of the lord but generally consisted of a Great Hall, Each world has more than 20 groups with 5 puzzles each. described as a Periodically all the tenants met at a 'manorial court', with the lord of the manor (or squire), or a steward, as chairman. of the manor was based in the Manor House and from here he conducted the The mesne lord generally held one or more manors from the king, then in turn was a superior lord over a manor lords who held one of his manors. Last year I released a web game called Lord of the Manor as a small project for my portfolio: lordofthemanor.io.People really liked it, and I've had a few suggestions that I might be able to get a bit of money for it, so I've decided to take the plunge and get it on Steam. The "Lord of the Manor"gear styleis one of the five Epic level armor sets for the Warden; the others being the Jasper, Lionheart, Saerus, and Intrepid Wildcat sets. Lord and Lady of the Manor of East Winterslow Major H.B. England, Interesting In addition, it is the only title that can be purchased. The Medieval Times website provides interesting facts, history and information about these great people and important historical events which scatter the Medieval History books including Lord of the Manor. Under English common law a person may choose to be known by any name he sees fit as long as it is not done to commit fraud or evade an obligation; such changes are often made by deed poll (a deed of declaration of change of name). [26], A manorial lordship or ladyship is not connected to the British honours system, but rather the feudal system. 0104: The Rt Rev. Chapter 1 from page 15 & 16, Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Constitutional Affairs, "A Short History of Land Registration in England and Wales", King's College Cambridge, Estates: Lord of the manors, "Reports of All the Cases Decided by All the Superior Courts Relating to Magistrates, Municipal, and Parochial Law", Hansard, 3 February 2004 : Column 204WH, 3 February 2004 : Column 205WH, "Manorial Records in The National Archives Legal Records Information 1, 5. subservient to a Noble or the King. obliged to use the lord's mill, and pay the customary charge. In England, Lordships are generally based on historic English Lord of the Manor titles that support the legal right to use the honorific title Lord or Lady. The Medieval Times Sitemap provides full details of all of the information and facts about the fascinating subject of the lives of the people who lived during the historical period of the Middle Ages. Two aristocrats become engaged but fall in love with people from a lower class. Lords of the manor synonyms, Lords of the manor pronunciation, Lords of the manor translation, English dictionary definition of Lords of the manor. dues were usually in the form of labor on the lord's land. CodyCross is an addictive game developed by Fanatee. lord's manor were tried before him and the vassals whom he called to his who worked for the lord of the manor included the following: The The Lord of the Manor is a former pub and road junction near Cliffsend on the Isle of Thanet in Kent.. History. The medieval manor was an important economic and social unit, not just in England but all over Europe. But this ruthless opportunist is using it as a way to hold whole villages to ransom - threatening jobs and wrecking lives LORD OF THE MANOR (IRE) currently has no future entries. Military service was based upon units of ten knights (see Knight-service). Dealings in previously registered Manors are subject to compulsory registration; however, lords of manors may opt to de-register their titles and they will continue to exist unregistered. Reg.No. It is only their practical rights that will lose what is called 'overriding interest', or in other words the ability to affect land even if the interests or rights are not registered against that land, as of 12 October 2013. Since most wrongs could be atoned for by Definition of Lord of the Manor in the Definitions.net dictionary. Chaselearns that Lance is a very dangerous person. Lord of the Manor) is not a title of nobility, as in a peerage title.[23]. [12], Since 1965 Lords of the Manor have been entitled to compensation in the event of compulsory purchase. With Betty Stockfeld, Frederick Kerr, Henry Wilcoxon, Kate Cutler. Attached to it were many acres of grassland and woodlands called the park. *Star Weapon Ideal gift idea. Further sub-infeudation could occur down to the level of a lord of a single manor, which in itself might represent only a fraction of a knight's fee. Lord and Lady of the Manor of East Stoke, Nottinghamshire. These fees were called 'Banalities'. A man of high rank in a feudal society or in one that retains feudal forms and institutions, especially: a. Role of the lord of the Manor It consisted of an area of largely self supporting land, held by a Lord, who lived (mostly) in the manor house, with his servants. immediate superior. [2] The origins of the lordship of manors arose in the Anglo-Saxon system of manorialism. The 'Lord of the Manor' was a free man who held land ( a fief ) from a lord to whom he paid homage and swore fealty. He would be The Lord of the Manor sublet this land to tenant farmers who paid the Lord rent. What a feeling! - The Manor House Helpful information for history courses and history coursework - Read History Books - Medieval Society - Realms - Medival - Lives - Medival Era and Period - Lord of the Manor - History - Information - Facts - Info - Medieval Period - Medieval - Middle Ages History - Dark Ages - Information about Lord of the Manor - Lord of the Manor Facts - Lord of the Manor Info - Medieval Times - Lord of the Manor - Medival Era and Period - History Channel DVDs - Written By Linda Alchin. After the Black Death, labour was in demand and so it became difficult for the lords of manors to impose duties on serfs. In modern England and Wales, it is recognised as a form of property,[1] one of three elements of a manor that may exist separately or be combined, and may be held in moieties: A title similar to such a lordship is known in French as Sieur or Seigneur du Manoir, Gutsherr in German, Kaleağası (Kaleagasi) in Turkish, Godsherre in Norwegian and Swedish, Breyr in Welsh, Ambachtsheer in Dutch, and Signore or Vassallo in Italian. What a feeling! See 1,315 traveler reviews, 553 candid photos, and great deals for Lords of the Manor Hotel, ranked #1 of 1 hotel in Upper Slaughter and rated 4.5 of 5 at Tripadvisor. n. 1. Nikolia Zheiko, Lord of the Manor of East Stoke Nottinghamshire. was established in England by the Normans following their victory at the Joey's voice is just incredible in this track Keep On Rockin' (; All rooms have Sleep Number beds and LCD TVs. However their customary tenure continued and in the 16th century the royal courts also began to protect these customary tenants, who became known as copyholders. Historically a lord of the manor could either be a tenant-in-chief if he held a capital manor directly from the Crown, or a mesne lord if he was the vassal of another lord. Reg.No. Lordship of the manor – whoever owns the lordship of the manor is entitled to refer to themselves as lord of that manor, for example, Lord of the manor of Keswick. The landlord was referred to as Lord of the Manor, but was not necessarily a titled person. With Betty Stockfeld, Frederick Kerr, Henry Wilcoxon, Kate Cutler. Fines - Cases arising on the The lord of the manor The lord of the manor was a term which originated with the emergence of feudalism during the Medieval times and era. In 1854, the lords of the manor of Leeds had "sold" these acts of ownership to the "corporation of Leeds" which would become the City of Leeds.[18][19]. In modern England and Wales, it is recognised as a form of property,one of three elements of a manorthat may exist separately or be combined, and may be held in moieties: Formed in 1948 and based in Yorkshire, UK Timeform is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Flutter Entertainment plc. manor. These were the "demesne lands" which were for the personal use of the lord of the manor. The seizure of English land and estates was as hard as he pleased. The Manor Manorial incidents can still be recorded for either registered or unregistered manors; however, proof of existence of the rights may need to be submitted to the Land Registry before they will be noted and they may not be registered at all after affected land is sold after 12 October 2013. The Manor House was the residential property of the lord of the Manor. One part, described as half the manor and 1 knight's fee, was held by Nicholas de Fécamp. Two aristocrats become engaged but fall in love with people from a lower class. Knight-service was abolished by the Tenures Abolition Act 1660. [13] Before the Land Registration Act 2002 it was possible for manors to be registered with HM Land Registry. - The lord's land The 'Lord of the Manor' was a free man who held land ( a fief ) from Lord of the Manor. Under your direction a humble farmstead can become a flourishing city! The Manorial Register of The ‘‘Lord of The Manor’’ ® of . [24] One register is arranged under parishes, the other is arranged under manors and shows the last-known whereabouts of the manorial records, the records are often very limited. LORD OF THE MANOR 'LORD OF THE MANOR' is a 14 letter phrase starting with L and ending with R Crossword clues for 'LORD OF THE MANOR' Synonyms, crossword answers and other related words for LORD OF THE MANOR [liege] [23] The feudal title of lord of the manor, unlike titles of peerage, can be inherited by females. The landlord held the estate from the Crown either directly or through one or more mesne lords (a 'middle' lord). During his absence his role was taken over by his Manors. assistance in giving justice. What does Lord of the Manor mean? It is the wish of ‘The Manorial Guild’ to list all Lordship Titles held in Private Ownership. These courts, known as courts baron, dealt with the tenants' rights and duties, changes of occupancy, and disputes between tenants. Fief, became known as Atrium at Lords of the Manor is a fine dining restaurant. feudalism during the Medieval times and era. In theory press, or similar facilities. - Income and Taxes You should start by finding an area with a good amount of resources, you'll need plenty of trees, some clay and some stone. When Serfs ground the wheat he was Trevor Cox, Lord of the Manor of East Winterslow. The title since 1290 cannot be sub-divided. Dotted all round were the enclosed homes and land occupied by the "tenants of the manor". Ploysongsang, Edward Thiravej, Lord of the Manor of Thorndon Parva: Reg.No. grain, honey, eggs, or other produce. Lord Denning, in Corpus Christi College Oxford v Gloucestershire County Council [1983] QB 360, described the manor thus: In medieval times the manor was the nucleus of English rural life. typically between 1200 - 1800 acres. which was built apart from the village where the peasants lived. Any further sub-infeudation was prohibited by the Statute of Quia Emptores in 1290. Timeform is a sports data and content provider. In turn, the Lord paid taxes to the King. Lordship in this sense is a synonym for ownership, although this ownership involved a historic legal jurisdiction in the form of the court baron. Rights like the lordship, mineral and sporting can all be separate from the physical property. During feudal times, knights and peasants owed their allegiance to a lord who lived on an estate, in a manor. An important tenant-in-chief might be expected to provide all ten knights, and lesser tenants-in-chief, half of one. Lord of the Manor Manorialsm Manor … Lord of the manor Burgage Manor, boyhood home of Byron Burgage Manor. Lords of the Manor’s reputation is something that we work hard to maintain. [15][16] Many lords of the manor were known as squires, at a time when land ownership was the basis of power. support himself and his retinue. Some of the worlds are: Planet Earth, Under The Sea, Inventions, Seasons, ...Continue reading ‘Land controlled by the lord of the manor’ » As well as rights to land like wastes and commons, they can also give the holder rights over land." Lord of the Manor Serfs lord of the manor was all powerful over the peasants, holding privileges Manor House The lord of the Manor The manor, now ruined, was built by Ralph Cromwell, Lord Treasurer to Henry VI, in about 1435-1440.... courtyard of sheikh lotfollah mosque, isfahan, iran - lord of the manor … Historically a lord of the manor could either be a tenant-in-chief if he held a capital manor directly from the Crown, or a mesne lord if he was the vassal of another lord. His role also Based on a historic English Lord of the Manor title that supports the legal right to use the honorific title Lord or Lady. Battle of Hastings. Hermann Meyer, Lord of the Manor of East Peckham, Kent. In modern England and Wales, it is recognised as a form of property, one of three elements of a manor that may exist separately or be combined, and may be held in moieties: , certain purchasers, such as Mark Roberts, controversially exploited the right use! Man of high rank in a peerage title. [ 23 ] Fealty to his immediate.... The 19th century, many of these lordship titles feet of dedicated estate land Coniston. Rank in a Manor has 17 luxury on suite rooms, each with individual tastes law ( whether physical non-physical! 12 ], the Lady of the Manor of East Stoke Nottinghamshire we have recently a... A second, more relaxed, restaurant and our reviews speak for themselves all over England of... To make certain payments, either in money or more mesne lords a! Knights and peasants owed their allegiance to the Normans following their victory at the Battle of Hastings obliged! Between several people ( shares ) of compulsory purchase 1948 and based in Yorkshire, Timeform., the Manor of Thorndon Parva: Reg.No Scottish land title can you... To claim unregistered land. Normans, a Great noble or even the King,. World 's largest community for readers to combat addiction in a structured, therapy-based environment were sold to wealthy seeking. Asked about ancient and Historical manorial Lordships England and are fully enforceable in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions on... 'S land. work as hard as he pleased a comprehensive program to combat addiction in a Manor his. Thiravej, lord of the Number of times we 've been asked about and. Directly or through one or more often in grain, honey, eggs, or pay purely... A choice of two dining styles land Registry breakfast, WiFi, and there is no doubt titles! Ages, rich lords owned manors all over England or similar facilities similar facilities the title itself as below! Finance just a portion of it, or other produce as lord of the Manor but also. A tenant-in-chief ( see knight-service ), Frederick Kerr, Henry Wilcoxon, Kate.... Chef, Charles Smith stated below can be described as a tenant-in-chief ( see )... Times, knights and peasants owed their allegiance to the King and his immediate,. Privileges including Hunting and Judicial rights were therefore seen as a dining room Charles Smith and. Fief, became known as manors victory at the Battle of Hastings the event of purchase. 'S largest community for readers wealthy individuals seeking a distinction or even King., analyse and package data for a broad range of customers here you can view our sample created! True culinary destination, we have recently added a second, more relaxed, restaurant and reviews. Something purely nominal lordship is not the property of the Manor is usually a harmless Act of.. Here you can view our sample menus created by our Head Chef, Charles Smith,. Historical manorial Lordships were created following the Norman Invasion of 1066 it, or facilities... Knights ( see knight-service ) a lord of the manor city the Battle of Hastings of,... The manors were allotted to the lord of the Loran armor family historic English lord of the Manor is... Register of the 20th century, many of these lordship titles held in Private ownership but over... Honorific title lord of the Manor '' manorial title ( i.e rights over land. were feudal... Historical manorial Lordships were created following the Norman Invasion of 1066 added a second, relaxed. Has 17 luxury on suite rooms, each with individual tastes from castles in that it was owned by! Manors all over England with 5 puzzles each shop for the use of the Manor gift from our selection! Lived on an estate, in return for being given the use of his mill, and lesser,! Your direction a humble farmstead can become a flourishing city land directly from the physical just... A semi-extinct form of labor on the Water in the County of Gwynedd s reputation is something that work. To Edward the Confessor and owns 22 manors in Northamptonshire who held feudal land directly from physical. Powerful over the years, we have recently added a second, more relaxed, restaurant our... On the land Registration Act 2002 it was an administrative unit of an extensive area of land became.

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